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Lido on Solana is governed by the Lido Decentralized Autonomous Organization (Lido DAO). Members of the DAO — holders of the LDO governance token — can vote on high-level proposals, such as whether to expand to a new chain. For day to day tasks, we have a much more narrowly scoped need for somebody to execute privileged operations: an administrator. The administrator rights reside with a 4-out-of-7 multisig that consists of established validators and ecosystem partners.

Administrator responsibilities

Lido on Solana is implemented as a program called Solido, that runs on the Solana blockchain. Programs on Solana have an upgrade authority: an address that can replace the program with a newer version. This upgrade authority has a lot of power, especially for a program like Solido that manages user’s funds. After all, the upgrade authority could deploy a new program that withdraws all staked SOL into an address of their choice. Therefore, it is essential that the upgrade authority is trustworthy.


It is possible on Solana to disable upgrades for a program. In that case nobody will ever be able to change it, so there is no party to trust — you only need to trust the code itself. This is a double-edged sword: if the code contains a critical bug, then nobody can fix it. This makes disabling upgrades dangerous, potentially more risky than trusting an upgrade authority. Especially for early versions of a program, we need a way to upgrade.

Aside from the program code itself, the Solido program has parameters, whose values must be set by somebody:

  • How much fees does it take, and how are those split up among the treasury, the developer, and validators?
  • Which validators are part of the validator set?

In the program, we refer to the address that can sign parameter changes as the manager. The role of the administrator, is to act as the manager for parameter changes, and to act as the upgrade authority for program changes.

Multisig administration

Different administration methods exists, each with different advantages and disadvantages.

  • A single person could act as the administrator. This has very low overhead, and the administrator can move quickly when there is a need to deploy a critical bugfix. However, it also places a high degree of trust in a single person.

  • On the opposide side of the spectrum, a DAO program could act as the administrator. Administrative tasks could only be executed after a majority of LDO token holders approve. This is decentralized, but it makes it very difficult to act quickly when needed.

A good middle ground between these two extremes is a multisig, a program that executes administrative tasks after m out of n members have approved. For m greater than one, no single party can unilaterally execute administrative tasks, but we only need to coordinate with m parties to get something done, not with a majority of LDO holders.

Multisig details

For Lido on Solana, we use the Serum Multisig program, and we require approval from 4 out of 7 members. The members are:

The addresses of the multisig members are listed on the deployments page. The multisig instance is used both as the upgrade authority of the Solido program, and as the manager of the Solido instance.

For initial testing on testnet, Bonafida participated as one of the seven multisig members. For the mainnet deployment, ChainLayer has taken their place. During the initial mainnet deployment, Solana Foundation participated as one of the seven members. They were succeeded by Mercurial after the v1.0.0 launch.

Aside from approving parameter changes to onboard validators, the multisig members also verify that the deployed Solido program can be reproduced, to ensure that the on-chain program was built from the publicly available source code, and contains no back doors.

Multisig origin

The 4-out-of-7 multisig was established as follows:

  • Lido on Solana team reached out to all participants, and verified their identities on Telegram and GitHub.
  • Participants shared their public keys on GitHub.
  • Lido on Solana team deployed the Serum Multisig program, and created an instance that has the 7 public keys as owners. The upgrade authority of the multisig program was set to the multisig instance itself.
  • Participants verified that they could reproduce the program, and that the list of public keys matched the keys shared earlier on GitHub.